The first thing I want to do is take you back in time (Sixtraitgurus time) for just a moment, to October 24, 2011 and a post entitled, The Marshall Memo: A highlight of my week! In this post, I sang the praises of subscribing to Kim Marshall’s amazing weekly missive. Search the STG archives to read the post or just go to: www.marshallmemo.com and get yourself signed up. With that said, let’s return to the here and now, May 2014.
In this week’s Marshall Memo (#535), Kim summarized an article from the April 2014 issue of The Reading Teacher, written by Kristen Marchiando, a third grader teacher from Illinois. (“The Power of Student Noticings” by Kristen Marchiando, The Reading Teacher, April 2014, Vol. 67, #7, p. 560) In the article, Kristen writes about a question she asks her students when looking at a book together. (I strongly suggest that you search out Kristen’s article after reading the MM’s summary.) It’s a simple yet powerful question and something you’ve most likely asked your students many times. Ready for it? Here it is: What do you notice? Kristen describes using this question to empower her students to lead the direction of discussions and their learning. Over time, by asking this question daily, her students began focusing on details in illustrations, text, specific word choices, figurative language, organizational patterns, and sentence structure. She employs a document camera to project pictures and a variety of writing samples—both from professionals and from the work of her own students. Student responses are noted and used as a kind of formative assessment to help Kristen with follow-up opportunities to extend, expand, and improve student learning. Clearly, asking the question—What do you notice?—is not limited to a particular age of student or use in a reading/writing setting. It could be asked about math concepts, science topics, in a physical education setting, and so on. Wow! All this from one question! Hats off to Kristen and her students (and to the Marshall Memo for highlighting her article)!
I could stop here—I’m sure your mind is racing with ideas for and from your own classroom—but I won’t. Kristen’s article sent my mind racing as well, and I want to share a few of the ways I’ve used the question What do you notice? with students from different grade levels.
In the Classroom
1. Photographs—National Geographic. Using the awe-inspiring photography found in each issue of National Geographic is certainly not a new idea. I always kept stacks of the magazine in my classroom (I think it’s the most difficult magazine to recycle/discard). It was my pre-internet image library where students could “surf” the world. Recently, I used a document camera to show a group of seventh graders photos from the May 2014 issue article “The Ship-Breakers of Bangladesh.” Along the coast of Bangladesh, near the city of Chittagong, there are 80 ship-breaking “yards.” This is the place where large, old, tankers and freighters go to die—to be beached, disassembled, and scrapped by hand. The work is dangerous, environmentally unsound, and done by workers who risk their lives daily for little pay. I lingered on one photo in particular—a close-up of four young boys, filthy from work, staring into the camera. The boys are clearly younger than the legal age “required” to work in the yards—14, but this was information I withheld from the students. I asked the question, “What do you notice?” Working alone first, I wanted students to record their initial thoughts, impressions, or questions using key words and phrases rather than sentences. I then had them partner up briefly to share and compare, adding anything inspired by their discussion to their notes. Then we opened up a group-wide conversation. Again using the document camera, I charted their noticings. Here are a few of them:
all wearing hats
two have hats on backwards or sideways
seated at a table
someone standing behind them
really dirty clothes
long sleeved shirts
eyes look tired
inside a building
The picture makes me feel sad, because they look sad.
Are they on a break?
Do they go to school?
How much do they get paid?
What happens to the money they earn?
What happens if they get hurt?
Are their parents working too?
Is the person behind them a guard?
Are they being forced to work?
What do they do to get so dirty and tired?
I wouldn’t want their job.
Here’s one thing I noticed about their noticings—they ranged from the very literal “this is what I see in the picture,” to the more subjective, inferential, and evaluative “this makes me wonder about…this makes me feel…this reminds me of…” This happened without me directing their thinking!
I fed them a bit more information, including the age requirement for employment and the reasoning behind using such young workers—they’re cheap, less aware/concerned of the job’s dangers, and their small size allows them to get into the ship’s most cramped spaces. This information set them buzzing, so I stoked the fire by showing them two other photos, one showing men and boys at work, and the other of the funeral for a 22-year-old worker who had been killed on the job. Their noticings were filled with outrage, empathy, and cries for justice for these workers, along with stories of their own very different work experiences and flirtations with danger.
All this clearly suggests follow-up opportunities for further reading/research about Bangladesh, ship breaking, child labor laws in this country and around the world, and so on. And, as Alejandro (See January 2014 STG post) so wisely said, “After reading comes writing.” Writing to answer a question, reflect on personal feelings or connections to the photos, to share the results of research—these are just a few of the possibilities for students to write about.
2. Illustrations—Picture Books. Using the question, “What do you notice?” with picture books is an obvious choice (they aren’t called picture books for nothing), but I’m going to offer an example anyway. Sharing the illustrations in books of this format, whether you have a document camera in your classroom or use the tried and true method of gathering your students close as you fan each page back and forth for your audience, is essential—duh! Essential for the sake of sharing great art, for providing visual context for new vocabulary, for comprehending the story and accompanying text (if there is any), for helping students make deeper connections between the content and their own worlds, and for launching student led discussions as they talk about what they have noticed. Here are a few suggestions for using a book I recently discovered.
This is the Rope: A Story from the Great Migration, by Jacqueline Woodson (hopefully a familiar name), is the fictional story of one family’s move from South Carolina to New York, seeking a better life. Each page begins with the phrase, “This is the rope…” referring to a piece of rope found under a tree in South Carolina and used for jumping by the narrator’s grandmother on the book’s first page. The rope travels with the family holding luggage down to the top of the car as they begin their drive to New York. In Brooklyn, the rope, used for drying flowers, hanging laundry, pulling toys, playing games, is passed on from one generation to the next—grandmother to mother to daughter. The book is perfect for younger students, K-3. The full page illustrations show images of both country and city life—houses, activities, and changing colors—making it ideal for, “What do you notice?”discussions. I would even suggest asking the question as you go through each illustration as a pre-reading strategy before engaging in the text. Once you begin reading, I would ask the question to get them talking about the text’s rhythmic repetition.
This is the Rope: A Story from the Great Migration. 2013. Jacqueline Woodson. Illustrated by James Ransome. New York: Nancy Paulsen Books.
4. Text—6-Trait Focus. Asking the “What do you notice?” question with students involved in reading is so important beyond even the immediate discussion it would encourage. It gets at the heart of becoming an active reader—are you gathering meaning or just decoding? It strengthens the all important writer/reader connection—what is the writer doing to enhance your reading experience? It helps readers transform a professional’s text into exemplars to help shape their own writing. And it’s a great way to introduce/reintroduce, familiarize, and utilize the language of the six traits of writing—Ideas, Organization, Voice, Word Choice, Sentence Fluency, and Conventions/Presentation. (See #8 below for links to our Write Traits© products and informative videos.) Our STG archive is full of examples of literature-inspired trait-based writing ideas—be sure to check them out, too. Here’s some ideas inspired by asking students “What do you notice?” about passages from a book I just finished reading, Leepike Ridge by N.D. Wilson (an author I’m excited to read more from).
Leepike Ridge is a fast-paced Odyssey-like tale about eleven-year-old Tom Hammond’s quest to survive after being lost inside a mountain following his near drowning. Thrown into the mix are a house built on a mountainside, a wild ride down a river, a long-lost professor, artifacts from ancient civilizations, a gang of less than friendly treasure hunters, Tom’s mother fighting off suitors with questionable motives, a crawdad farm, and a heroic dog named Argus. It’s a rousing adventure tale to say the least.
Author Wilson provides readers with opportunity after opportunity for readers to notice elements of his craft and to describe them using 6-trait language. (This is true about many books. Think about the books you love and want to share with others, and you’ll find plenty of your own examples.)
Here are three examples with a specific trait focus.
A) Organization (introduction, conclusion, order, logic, structure, pattern, linking, connecting)—Read the book’s opening paragraph.What do you notice?
“In the history of the world there have been lots of onces and lots of times, and every time has had a once upon it. Most people will tell you that the once upon a time happened in a land far, far away, but it really depends on where you are. The once upon a time may have been just outside your back door. It may have been beneath your very feet. It might not have been in a land at all but deep in the sea’s belly or bobbing around on its back.” (page 1)
B) Sentence Fluency (varying sentence length/structure/beginning, rhythm, purposeful repetition, easy to read aloud)—Read the passage beginning at the bottom of page 139 with the sentence, “Waking up without daylight could be depressing above ground…” and ending with the sentence, “And Reg was yelling about sunshine.” What do you notice as you read the passage aloud? Count the number of sentences and the number of words in each sentence.What do you notice?
C) Word Choice (strong verbs, precise nouns, appropriate modifiers, “right word for the job,” awareness of audience and purpose)—Read the opening sentence of chapter two (page 17): “After a few mouthfuls of moon-flavored air, even the stubbornly drowsy can find themselves wide-eyed.” What do you notice?
Leepike Ridge. 2007. N. D. Wilson. New York: Yearling Books.
5. Text–Poetry. A lot has to happen before I ask students to launch into the writing poetry of their own. I want them to experience all sorts of poetry by reading it aloud (alone, small group, choral), and memorizing and reciting both assigned and self-selected poems. I think we jump into interpretation and analysis too soon, before giving students a chance to like poetry just for the way the words play to their ears, the ways words are grouped and spaced on a page, or the way it makes them feel as words are spoken. As students are exploring poetry with you, ask the question, What do you notice? as a way to get them thinking about poetry structures, line breaks, rhyme schemes, author’s purpose, and even meaning. Here are two (of the many) poems I have used with students from third grade to high school. So, what do you notice?
By Rainer Maria Rilke
His vision, from the constantly passing bars,
has grown so weary that it cannot hold
anything else. It seems to him there are
a thousand bars; and behind the bars, no world.
As he paces in cramped circles, over and over,
the movement of his powerful soft strides
is like a ritual dance around a center
in which a mighty will stands paralyzed.
Only at times, the curtain of the pupils
lifts, quietly—. An image enters in,
rushes down through the tensed, arrested muscles,
plunges into the heart and is gone.
By Marilyn Singer
A dryer full of clothes.
A yo-yo twirling on a string.
A dancer on her toes.
A lazy leaf caught on a breeze.
An egg before you peel it.
A ceiling fan.
A tall red stool.
The Earth—but we can’t feel it.
Falling Down the Page: A Book of List Poems. 2009. Edited by Georgia Heard. New York: Roaring Brook Press. Page 32.
(See Falling Down the Page edited by Georgia Heard, STG post from November 2, 2010, for more on this book.)
The Fortune Teller by Georges de la Tour
6. Art. Using art—painting, sculpture, photography, pottery, textiles, cultural artifacts, etc.—to initiate discussion and writing is, again, not a new idea, but it’s still a great one. Before sending students off on a search for pieces of art they feel some connection with and “like” (and not in the Facebook sense) for whatever reason, I like to show students some examples of art that I “like.” I get them talking by using the question—What do you notice? The painting above, is one that always starts a discussion, and like I mentioned in #1, their noticings inevitably span the continuum from literal to inferential to evaluative. Some typical noticings include references to color—“that’s a lot of red,” comments about clothing, body position, facial expressions, and even to the artwork’s story—“he’s getting robbed!” I have even categorized student comments about a work of art into six trait categories—ideas (details, story), organization (patterns, structures), voice (color schemes, themes, use of light particular to an artist), etc. After noticing my art selections, I have them turn the question towards their art selections. Their noticings then become personal poetic responses to their art choices. Here are two examples of student poetry inspired by art and the question—What do you notice?
The Great Wave
(By E.H. Grade 4)
In the great wave
Of Kanagawa Bay
Small boats tumble
While giant waves of claws
From an eagle
On people hanging on
For their lives
(By A.K. Grade 6)
Wherever I look
It is dark,
Dark and hot as Hell.
Everyday we do the same—
We are machines.
(Check out books by authors Gillian Wolfe and Bob Raczka to enrich their art knowledge and broaden noticings.)
7. Writing Process—Assessment and Revision. I would be remiss if I didn’t mention one other important use of the question, What do you notice? Besides looking at samples of writing from professional sources, students need to cast their noticing eyes on the writing of their classmates and their own writing. This kind of formative assessment informs both teachers and students, leading to further instruction and more purposeful revision. Noticing strengths and areas to improve in the writing of others will help create writers more willing to revise their own work. Revision will not be seen as “starting over” or some form of punishment, but as an extension of the noticing conversations and a natural part of the writing process. “The Coyote Story,” is a sample of student writing I have used with students from second to fifth grade. Students, as young as seven, have noticed some pretty amazing things about this piece of writing, and asked the writer some rather helpful questions leading to a clear revision mission.
The Coyote Story
I was walking. I was walking by myself. It was morning. It was foggy. I saw two coyotes. I saw one in front of me. I saw one behind me. I was scared. I looked for a stick. I clapped my hands. I stomped my feet. I screamed at them. I saw them run away. I walked home fast!
Too many periods
Too many “I’s”
Too many short sentences
What did the coyotes look like?
Did you really walk home? I would have run!
Where were you?
8. Write Traits Kits© and Videos. If you are interested in ready-to-go lessons with a 6-trait/CCSS focus, we invite you to check out our Write Traits© Classroom Kits, 2010 edition:
Check out our videos (Sorry—no cats playing the piano or water skiing squirrels) providing you with some nuts and bolts information on the six traits and an insider’s look at the Write Traits© Classroom Kits.
Coming up on Gurus . . .
Vicki will be reviewing A Splash of Red: The Life and Art of Horace Pippin by Jen Bryant. We know the 2013-2014 school year is coming to an end, and we hope that our posts have been helpful to you and your students. So before you slip into summer, if you or your school is thinking about professional development in writing instruction, we can help. Whether your focus is on complying with the Common Core writing standards or making students strong writers for life, we can make it happen. Let us design a seminar or series of classroom demo’s to meet your needs at the classroom, building, or district level. We can incorporate any combination of the following: Common Core Standards for writing, the 6 traits, writing strong narrative, exposition, or argument, and the best in literature for young people. Please contact us for details or with questions at any time: 503-579-3034. Thanks for stopping by. Come back—and bring friends. And remember . . . Give every child a voice.